The Faces of PhilSoc: Melanie Green

melanie_green

Name: Melanie Green

Position: Reader in Linguistics and English Language

Institution: University of Sussex

Role in PhilSoc: Council Member

 


About You

How did you become a linguist – was there a decisive event, or was it a gradual development?

Somewhere between doing my A-levels (in English, French and Latin) and applying for university, when I found the SOAS prospectus in the school cupboard. At that point I realised that studying language didn’t have to mean studying literature, and I applied to study Hausa at SOAS. In my final year, I took a course that focused on the linguistic description of Hausa (taught by Professor Philip Jaggar), and it was this course that led me upstairs to the Linguistics Department, where I then took my MA and PhD.

What was the topic of your doctoral thesis? Do you still believe in your conclusions?

My doctoral thesis was on focus and copular constructions in Hausa, and offered a minimalist analysis. I still believe in the descriptive conclusions, which relate to the grammaticalisation of non-verbal copula into focus marker, but I’m less convinced these days by formal theory. I still enjoy teaching it though, because I think it makes students think carefully (and critically) about formal similarities and differences between languages.

On what project / topic are you currently working?

Together with Gabriel Ozon at Sheffield and Miriam Ayafor at Yaounde I, I’ve just completed a BA/Leverhulme funded project to build a pilot spoken corpus of Cameroon Pidgin English. Based on this corpus, Miriam and I co-authored a descriptive grammar of the variety, which is in press.

What directions in the future do you see your research taking?

In my dreams, typologically-framed language documentation. In reality, probably more corpus linguistics, since this seems to be what attracts funding at the moment.

How did you get involved with the Philological Society?

The PhilSoc published my first book, Focus in Hausa.


‘Personal’ Questions

Do you have a favourite language – and if so, why?

No.

Minimalism or LFG?

Minimalism.

Teaching or Research?

Both.

Do you have a linguistic pet peeve?

No.

 


Looking to the Future

Is there something that you would like to change in academia / HE?

I would like there to be more funding for language documentation. Languages are dying faster than we can describe them.

(How) Do you manage to have a reasonable work-life balance?

I do, but that only became possible in mid-career. I achieve it with careful planning, so when I’m off work, I’m really off work.

What is your prime tip for younger colleagues?

Start publishing as early as possible. 

The Faces of PhilSoc: Nicola McLelland


Name:
Nicola McLelland
Position: Professor of German and History of Linguistics
Institution: University of Nottingham
Role in PhilSoc: Council Member

 


About You

How did you become a linguist – was there a decisive event, or was it a gradual development?

I remember sitting among a sea of undergraduates and realizing that not everyone in the room thought Middle High German was even more interesting than modern German. So the question to me is not why want to be a linguist, but the mystery of why not everyone else does. I still don’t really understand why not everyone finds language analysis completely absorbing and fascinating. It’s like breathing – what’s not to like?

What was the topic of your doctoral thesis? Do you still believe in your conclusions?

My thesis was on an early 13th-century Middle High German version of the Lancelot story (where he’s not in love with Guinevere and has multiple other liaisons instead, before finally settling down to married life). It was a literary study, but one of my main arguments was that the mix of narrative styles – coded in the lexis and pragmatics as well as in the content – was deliberate and not just incompetence, as others had assumed. I still think that’s true.

On what project / topic are you currently working?

I’m just wrapping up various projects on the history of language learning and teaching in the UK and in Europe more widely – it’s definitely at the very ‘soft’ end of linguistics, although my entry into it was the history of grammar-writing and realizing that many of the first successful accounts of the rules of a language came from those teaching it as a foreign language, not from its native speakers. That’s certainly the case for German.

What directions in the future do you see your research taking?

I’ve been working on an article about women in the history of German linguistics. That’s made me realize there is much more to be said about women’s voices in German language history as a whole, so that’s something I’m keen to pursue.

How did you get involved with the Philological Society?

When I was in my first post at Trinity College Dublin. David Singleton told me about it, told me how cheap it was to join, and said he could nominate me to join. So I did.


‘Personal’ Questions

Do you have a favourite language – and if so, why?

No, I love them all. I can’t stop learning them.

Minimalism or LFG?

LFG. Just don’t ask me why.

Teaching or Research?

Jein, as we say in German. Both.

Do you have a linguistic pet peeve?

I find it unsettling that as I become older (and I’m really not that old yet), things that were definitely wrong become right. At what point does correcting something in a student’s essay cease to be helpful feedback on a tricky point, and instead prove you’re an out-of-touch dinosaur who doesn’t even grasp ordinary modern English? One thing I LIKE is being able to say “What even is that?” which was definitely ungrammatical for me until very recently, but which is totally acceptable for my children and their friends, and – I now find – very handy in many contexts. I used to use it with ironic distance, now I think I probably just use it.

What’s your (main) guilty pleasure?

Learning Mandarin Chinese. I spend a ridiculous amount of my spare time making very little progress on it. Its now the Concorde fallacy – having put this much effort in, I must continue. And I want to – it is addictive once you start to crack the code. And I’m sure there is much, much more to say about its grammar than has been said. Whether I’ll ever be able to is another question.


Looking to the Future

Is there something that you would like to change in academia / HE?

I wish the talk about internationalization and global experience for students translated into an expectation of learning another language to a high level, and that university structures made that more readily achievable for all students. That is one of many, many things I wish were different. For everyone else around the world beyond Anglophone countries, global experience means being able to operate outside your comfort zone, in another language. I think we massively underestimate how much that add to the value of the experience.

(How) Do you manage to have a reasonable work-life balance?

Nearly always, though I find as I get older that reading a book about linguistics is moving from the ‘work’ category to the ‘relaxation’ category.

What is your prime tip for younger colleagues?

I’m not sure I have any great advice for younger colleagues, who – luckily – seem much better equipped to face the world than I was at their stage. But I would say: don’t let time pressures (or natural introversion) stop you from getting out and meeting other people in your field and getting new ideas. I’ve gone to many conferences wishing I’d never signed up – but I’ve ALWAYS come away delighted I was there, my head buzzing with new inspirations from totally unexpected quarters.

Multilingualism: Empowering Individuals, Transforming Societies (MEITS) – Project Launch

by Lisa-Maria Mueller (University of Cambridge)

Languages are not merely a tool for communication but central to key issues of our time, including national security, diplomacy and conflict resolution, community and social cohesion, migration and identity. Learning languages then is not only about learning the words and grammar of another language but also about a deeper intercultural understanding that is not just important for individuals but for developing more respectful and effective policy.

And yet multilingualism and multiculturalism are commonly problematised and Modern Foreign Languages have not yet attained the same status as English, Maths or Science in the school setting.

The AHRC funded Open World Research Initiative (OWRI), which subsumes four major projects, therefore aims to explore and promote modern languages in the UK (see here for more details).

MEITS is one of those four research programmes. It is based at the universities of Cambridge, Edinburgh, Nottingham and Queen’s Belfast and spans six interlocking strands exploring the fields of literature, cinema and culture, history of ideas, sociolinguistics, education, applied linguistics and cognition (see diagram).

meits_diagram

Together, these strands seek to answer the following research questions:

  • What is the relationship between the multilingual individual and the multilingual society?
  • What are the opportunities and challenges presented by multilingualism?
  • What is the relationship between multilingualism, diversity and identity?
  • What is the relationship between multilingualism and language learning?
  • How can we influence attitudes towards multilingualism?
  • How can we re-energise Modern Languages research?

To this end, research strand 1 will be investigating literature, cinema, culture and citizenship in a globalising Europe by studying cultural texts and events – narrative, fiction, poetry, theatre, cinema – that foreground, problematise, and inform questions of linguistic unity, diversity, identity, power, and quality of life in the public sphere. This strand will focus on two distinct contexts at opposite ends of Europe; Catalonia, on the one hand, because of its status as an ‘autonomous region’ in Spain and Ukraine, on the other, due to its recent conflicts over the legacy of empire and colonialism. Despite inherent differences, these regions share the instrumentalisation of language for the renegotiation or secession of national identities. Spanning from the 19th to the 21st century, strand 1 of the MEITS project will investigate how and why language is politicised in multilingual contexts and the role of culture in this process by undertaking formal-aesthetic and symbolic-ideological analyses of texts and contexts.

Strand 2 also focuses on societal multilingualism and will provide a comparative perspective of standard languages, norms and variation in multilingual contexts. The role of multilingualism in relation to standard languages will be analysed synchronically and diachronically in national and transnational contexts (e.g.: France/Francophonie) alongside pluricentric (e.g.: German) situations where languages vie with other languages/varieties on cultural, political and ideological grounds (e.g.: Ukrainian, Irish, Mandarin) by combining methods from the humanities, sociolinguistics and historical sociolinguistics.

The question of identity is central to many of the projects and will be explored from an individual and a social perspective in the third strand of the MEITS project. The contexts of Ireland and France will be contrasted as the first has an official language that is both minoritised and dialectal while the latter has a single standard language that is highly standardised and dominant despite the richness of regional and heritage languages in France. Quantitative and qualitative approaches will be blended to investigate issues such as urban language in multicultural contexts, regional identities, as well as the role of language for social cohesion.

Multilingual identity is further investigated in strand 4 of the MEITS project, where its connection to motivation and attainment in foreign language learning will be studied. To this end, the development and expansion of multilingual identities in early foreign language learning among monolingual adolescent learners and their peers with English as an additional language will be charted. The cognitive and social dimensions of motivation will be studied in intervention and matched non-intervention classes using a mixed methods design.

Instructed foreign language learning is also the focus in strand 5 of the MEITS project where the influence of age, language-specific factors and setting on the language learning process and progress will be studied. The aim of this strand is to investigate whether an earlier start indeed is better in the context of minimal input settings or whether cognitive changes during adolescence might actually make young adults more successful language learners. In order to achieve this goal, a combination of linguistic and cognitive tests will be employed to assess the language learning process and attainment in learners of different starting ages in a longitudinal study.

Finally, strand 6 shares its interest in cognitive processes with strands 4 and 5 and will study the impact of multilingualism on motivation, health and well-being. This topic will be approached from two perspectives. On the one hand, the cognitive effects of intensive language learning in late adulthood will be studied and on the other, bilingual and monolingual children with autism will be compared in order to establish whether cognitive advantages associated with typically developing bilingualism can also be found in bilingual children with autism.

This brief overview of the MEITS project shows that the six research strands are closely intertwined, facilitating the development of new interdisciplinary research paradigms and methods which will allow for a more holistic approach to the study of multilingualism on a societal and individual level. Through this integrated approach and our close collaboration with partners from outside higher education we aim to change attitudes towards multilingualism and highlight its benefits for cultural awareness, health and well-being, education, social cohesion, (inter)national relations as well as employability and thus empower individuals and transform societies.

If you want to learn more, visit the project’s website and/or follow us on social media (on facebook, twitter: @meits_owri).